Ankylosing spondylitis: Epidural risks
Neuraxial anesthesia is complicated by ossification of spinal ligaments and reduced intervertebral spaces – caudal anesthesia may be a reasonable alternative.
- Systemic Considerations: uveitis, vasculitis, aortic insufficiency, pulmonary fibrosis, restrictive lung disease
- General Anesthesia: reduced cervical and TMJ mobility
- Regional Anesthesia: osseous ligaments, reduced intravertebral spaces (consider caudal)