Atlantoaxial instability: causes


Common causes include : Down syndrome Rheumatoid Arthritis Trauma Ankylosing spondylitis There are many potential causes of atlantoaxial instability. They are listed below with most common ones listed in bold: Rheumatoid Arthritis Achondroplasia Down Syndrome (occurs less frequently than atlantooccipital instability 10-20% vs 60%) (1) Grisel Syndrome Morquio Syndrome Congenital scoliosis Osteogenesis imperfecta Neurofibromatosis Larsen syndrome Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita Chondrodysplasia punctata Metatropic dysplasia (a rare syndrome that can present with AAI) Kniest syndrome (also can present with AAI; a workup must be performed prior to any operative interventions) Odontoid abnormalities Os odontoideum Ossiculum terminale Third condyle Hypoplasia or absence of the dens Pseudoachondroplasia Cartilage-hair hyperplasia Ankylosing spondylitis Scott syndrome Infections of the head and neck Tumors Trauma Cerebral palsy Steroid therapy


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