Cancer pain: WHO ladder


  • The Oral route is preferred for all steps of pain ladder (however, parenteral therapy may be required in cases of refractory pain or inability to take P.O.)
  • Cancer pain is continuous. Analgesics should be scheduled at regular intervals as opposed to on a PRN basis.
  • Adjuvant drug therapy is used to decrease the anxiety and fear associated with chronic pain. These adjuvants include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, etc.


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