Ischemic optic neur: Risk factors

Advanced, Clinical Sciences: Anesthesia Procedures, Methods, and Techniques, Clinical Subspecialties

Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (ION) is the most common cause of postoperative visual loss. This can be seen in various surgeries, most notably cardiac, head and neck, robotic prostatectomies, prone positioned spine surgeries. 

Risk factors for postoperative ischemic optic neuropathy in surgery include: 

Specific to Spine surgery:

  • Obesity
  • Length of anesthesia
  • Estimated blood Loss
  • Crystalloid resuscitation
  • Use of Wilson frame (leads to head being lower than level of the heart, increasing venous pressure)
  • Male sex

Specific to Cardiac Surgery:

  • Lower minimum postoperative hemoglobin
  • Length of cardiopulmonary bypass time
  • Severe vascular disease


Answered correctly


Year asked


Answered correctly


Year asked

Kamilla Esfahani, MD