Spinal anatomy: neonatal
Advanced, Clinical Subspecialties
The spinal cord terminates with the conus medullaris located at L3 until 1 year of age. This is in comparison to L1 in adults.
The dural sac extends to S3 in infants compared to S1/S2 in adults.
“Regional Anesthesia.” A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children, by Coté Charles J. et al., Elsevier, 2019.
“Spinal, Epidural, & Caudal Blocks.” Clinical Anesthesiology, by Butterworth John F. et al., McGraw-Hill Education, 2018.